Hydrolyzed Collagen Shows Promise In Ant-Aging Research (Part II)

A randomized controlled study found that hydrolyzed collagen increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Hydrolyzed Collagen Shows Promise In Ant-Aging Research (Part II)

The study, which involved 131 postmenopausal women between the ages of 46 and 80 years who had reduced bone mineral density, investigated the effects of 5 grams of a commercially-available hydrolyzed collagen or 5 grams of maltodextrin every day for 12 months. The women in the study were encouraged to take 0.5 to 0.8 grams of calcium and 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D daily depending on their body weight. The authors of the study assessed the women’s bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck before and after the 12-month study period.

The women who supplemented with hydrolyzed collagen experienced a statistically significant 3 percent increase in the bone mineral density of the spine and a statistically significant 6.7 percent increase in bone mineral density of the femoral neck compared to baseline measures. In the placebo group, bone mineral density decreased by 1.3 percent in the spine and by 1 percent in the femoral neck compared to baseline. Amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone formation, significantly increased by approximately 11.6 percent compared to baseline measures in the hydrolyzed collagen supplement group but not in the placebo group. No adverse events were reported from the collagen supplement.[43]

Another randomized controlled trial determined that hydrolyzed collagen in combination with calcium and vitamin D attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women. The study included 112 postmenopausal women who had not received any hormone replacement therapy for at least three months prior to study initiation. The authors of the study assigned the women to one of two groups to take either a supplement containing 500 milligrams of calcium and 200 IU of vitamin D3 or a supplement containing 5 grams of hydrolyzed collagen, 500 milligrams of calcium, and 200 IU of vitamin D3 every day for 12 months. Bone mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae of the women in the control group decreased by 2.3 percent, and whole-body bone mineral density significantly decreased by 3.9 percent at 12 months compared to baseline. Bone mineral density in the women who took the hydrolyzed collagen supplement decreased slightly, but the results were not statistically significant, indicating that the collagen supplement may have been more effective at preventing bone loss compared to the control supplement.[44]

However, a separate randomized placebo-controlled study in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, a condition characterized by low bone mass, found that hydrolyzed collagen taken alone had no effects on bone health. The study involved 71 women (average age, 57 years) who received either a placebo or 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen every day for 24 weeks. Collagen supplementation did not produce any effects on bone metabolism with regard to markers of bone resorption and formation compared to the placebo. However, bone mineral density was not measured as in the previous studies.[45] Additionally, a majority of the women had inadequate calcium intake and were considered overweight. Calcium is a major mineral of the bone that confers bone strength and structure,[46] while excess body fat can adversely affect bone health.[47]

Hydrolyzed collagen in combination with calcium and vitamin D may be beneficial in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but more studies are needed to determine the role of hydrolyzed collagen in bone metabolism.

Hydrolyzed Collagen And Athletic Joint Pain

The consumption of hydrolyzed collagen may also be beneficial in athletes with activity-related joint pain. A study in athletes with functional knee problems due to sports found that hydrolyzed collagen significantly improved activity-related joint pain. The study involved 160 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years who received either 5 grams hydrolyzed collagen or a placebo every day for 12 weeks. Participants were excluded if they had a primary knee joint disease, were injured, or had received injections or taken supplements for joints. Changes in knee pain during activity were assessed by a visual analog scale by the participants and a physician.

In both the placebo and hydrolyzed collagen supplemented groups, knee pain was significantly reduced compared to baseline by the sixth week and until the end of the study. However, hydrolyzed collagen significantly outperformed the placebo by reducing pain by 38.4 percent at the end of the study compared to 27.9 percent in the placebo group. Additionally, the need for additional therapies was significantly reduced in both study groups after 12 weeks, but the hydrolyzed collagen supplemented group had a reduction of 59 percent compared to 40 percent in the placebo supplemented group.[48]

A separate study in 150 athletes who were physically active and had no evidence of joint disease found that hydrolyzed collagen can reduce activity-related joint pain. The study participants were assigned to receive a commercially available 25-milliliter liquid supplement of 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen or a 25-milliliter liquid supplement of xanthan as a placebo. The subjects and a physician rated pain across multiple joints using a visual analog scale. Across multiple joints, both the placebo and hydrolyzed collagen supplement decreased pain; however, the hydrolyzed collagen supplement markedly reduced pain at rest while walking, carrying objects, and lifting after 24 weeks. In a subgroup analysis, the hydrolyzed collagen supplemented group had pronounced reductions in joint pain of the knee after 24 weeks in parameters such as walking, running, and changing direction while running.[49]

These studies suggest that hydrolyzed collagen supplementation may be effective at reducing pain in joints from activity-related discomfort.

Hydrolyzed Collagen, Hypertension, And Type 2 Diabetes

Hydrolyzed collagen may be effective at decreasing blood pressure in people with hypertension and improving metabolic function in people with type 2 diabetes.[50]

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, increases the risk of heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death in the United States. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, participates in blood pressure regulation, and active ACE can lead to high blood pressure. ACE inhibitors are common antihypertensive drugs used to reduce blood pressure.[51]

Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies have found that hydrolyzed collagen primarily from marine sources exhibits antihypertensive activity.[52][53][54][55] Similarly, in vitro studies demonstrated that hydrolyzed collagen derived from chicken, pig, and bovine sources elicited antihypertensive effects.[56][57] Certain dipeptides and tripeptides, particularly those containing proline, which is abundant in collagen, exhibit inhibitory activity against ACE.[58][59][60]. Clinical studies are needed to determine the extent to which hydrolyzed collagen can lower blood pressure in humans.

Marine hydrolyzed collagen has also been shown to improve glucose sensitivity and insulin resistance as well as decrease inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in rodent studies.[61][62] A few clinical studies indicate that hydrolyzed collagen may be effective at improving insulin sensitivity and glucose and lipid metabolism and reducing hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. A study of 100 people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension and 50 healthy people provided participants either 6.5 grams of marine hydrolyzed collagen or 6.5 grams of carboxymethylcellulose (as a placebo) twice daily for three months. The study participants were permitted to use antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs as prescribed throughout the course of the study, and both groups received education about diet and exercise.

Hydrolyzed collagen powder induced a notable decrease in HbA1c, a marker indicative of improved diabetic glucose control. The participants who received hydrolyzed collagen had a 19.7 percent decrease in fasting blood glucose after three months of treatment compared to baseline. The participants who received a placebo had a slight 3 percent increase in fasting blood glucose. Additionally, HbA1c, a long term measure of blood glucose levels, decreased by 6.8 percent compared to baseline in the participants who supplemented with hydrolyzed collagen, while the participants who supplemented with the placebo saw a 1.7 percent increase in HbA1c levels compared to baseline. After three months, systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in both groups of participants, but diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased by 5.7 percent compared to baseline, but only in the participants who supplemented with hydrolyzed collagen. Lastly, hydrolyzed collagen significantly reduced levels of plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids, while increasing high-density lipoprotein at three months compared to baseline levels.[63]

Although dietary and exercise interventions likely contributed to the improvement in the metabolic parameters measured, the participants who supplemented with hydrolyzed collagen outperformed the participants who supplemented with the placebo, indicating that marine hydrolyzed collagen may be an effective supplement for improving metabolic health. The same researchers conducted similar clinical studies that showed marine hydrolyzed collagen improved glucose and lipid metabolism after three months in participants with type 2 diabetes.[64][65] These effects may be due to signaling mechanisms of collagen peptides acting through adiponectin and glucagon-like peptide-1, two hormones that modulate numerous metabolic processes such as insulin secretion, glucose regulation, and fatty acid oxidation.[66][67][68]

Summary Of Dosages And Correspondent Effects

Collagen has shown effects at surprisingly broad dosages. A brief summary of the many dosages mentioned in this article follows.

  • 50 milliliters of a liquid supplement containing 1,000 milligrams of hydrolyzed collagen with greater than 15 percent of the collagen hydrolyzed into tripeptides once daily for 12 weeks elicited a 7.23-fold greater improvement in skin hydration at six weeks and a 2.9-fold greater improvement in skin hydration at 12 weeks.[23]

  • 300 milligrams of hydrolyzed type II collagen, 100 milligrams of chondroitin sulfate, and 50 milligrams of hyaluronic acid twice a day for 12 weeks improved skin dryness, crow’s feet, texture, smoothness, and skin tone from baseline to week 12 in middle-aged women.[21].

    Editor’s note: Low doses may act as an antigen to stimulate an active immune suppression.

  • 1 gram of a commercial product composed of 600 milligrams of hydrolyzed chicken type II collagen, 200 milligrams of chondroitin sulfate, 100 milligrams of hyaluronic acid, and 50 milligrams uncharacterized cartilage components, twice daily for 70 days promoted significant decreases in acute and chronic pain compared to baseline measurements; the commercial product reduced pain scores by 35 percent and reduced the scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index by 38 percent in people with osteoarthritis.[29]

  • 2 to 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen per day for ten to 48 weeks decreased pain, stiffness, and functional limitations in five randomized placebo-controlled trials in people with osteoarthritis[30] 100 micrograms of chicken type II collagen once daily elicited significant decreases in pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, and swollen joint count at 12 and 24 weeks in people with rheumatoid arthritis.[38]

  • 5 grams of hydrolyzed collagen, 500 milligrams of calcium, and 200 IU of vitamin D3 taken every day for 12 months partially blunted loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.[44]

    25-milliliters of a liquid supplement of 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen taken for 24 weeks markedly reduced pain at rest while walking, carrying objects, and lifting in athletes with activity-related joint pain.[49]

  • 6.5 grams of marine hydrolyzed collagen taken twice daily for three months promoted a 19.7 percent decrease in fasting blood glucose, a 6.8 percent decrease in HbA1c, and a 5.7 percent decrease in diastolic blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.[63]


Conclusion

Collagen is important for maintaining the structural integrity of every tissue in the body. Aging decreases the body’s capacity to synthesize collagen, contributing to skin aging, joint disease, and diminished bone health. Oral hydrolyzed collagen supplementation represents an inexpensive and convenient strategy to offset some of the physiological declines associated with aging. In particular, hydrolyzed collagen supplementation may improve various aspects of skin aging, decrease pain associated with osteoporosis, increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, and improve metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. More studies are needed to distinguish the therapeutic benefits between the types of collagen (types I, II, and III) as well as the source (marine, bovine, chicken, and pig).

Hydrolyzed Collagen Shows Promise In Ant-Aging Research (Part 1)



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