Haiti’s President Moise Assassinated In Night Attack On His Home

Haitian President Jovenel Moise was assassinated in a raid on his home by a group of unidentified people in the capital Port-Au-Prince, according to the nation’s interim prime minister Claude Joseph. Haiti’s President Moise Assassinated In Night Attack On His Home

First Lady Martine Moise was injured in the “barbaric” attack and is hospitalized, Joseph said in a statement, published by the nation’s embassy in Canada on Wednesday morning.

Some of the assailants spoke Spanish, Joseph said, implying that they were foreigners. Haiti’s National Police and other authorities are working to keep order, he said. Some businesses were ransacked in one area, the Associated Press reported.

On top of the pandemic and a faltering economy, Haiti was undergoing a constitutional power struggle stemming from a chaotic election which saw Moise only sworn in 15 months after a first-round vote. As a result, he had said his five-year term would run until February 2022, while the opposition said his term ended last February.

Moise, 53, had governed by decree since January 2020, when parliamentary terms expired without elections being held. The opposition had said he was illegally amassing power and enacting laws in violation of the constitution. Moise responded to the claims by saying he was “not a dictator.”

This week, Moises appointed Henry Ariel as Prime Minister, though he hasn’t formally taken the role yet, and Claude Joseph is still acting on an interim basis.

“Heinous Act”

Jamaican Prime Minister Andrew Holness was among the first to condemn the attack. “This heinous act is a stain on Haiti and a sorrowful time for the region,” he said in a post on Twitter.

Haiti, the poorest nation in the Americas, has struggled for political stability for decades. Its proximity to the U.S. makes its protracted chaos a test for President Joe Biden in the region. Moise’s assassination also opens the possibility of an another escalation of violence in the Caribbean island.

Biden will be briefed this morning by his national security team on the “horrific” attack, White House spokeswoman Jen Psaki told MSNBC.

“We stand ready and we stand by them to provide any assistance that is needed,” she said separately to CNN.

Haiti President Jovenel Moïse Assassinated At Home, Official Says

Assailants shot the leader and wounded the first lady, the interim prime minister said, sparking fresh political turmoil.

Haitian President Jovenel Moïse was assassinated in an attack at his residence, the country’s interim prime minister said, plunging the unstable Caribbean nation into fresh political turmoil and posing a challenge to U.S. policy makers.

A group of assailants carrying high-caliber weapons stormed the house in an upscale residential neighborhood about 1 a.m. local time on Wednesday, fatally shooting the president and wounding the first lady, Martine Moïse, said interim Prime Minister Claude Joseph. She was in a critical condition and taken to Miami for medical treatment, the Haitian government said.

“This was a highly coordinated attack by a highly trained and heavily armed group,” Mr. Joseph said, adding that the attackers spoke Spanish and English. Haiti is a French- and Creole-speaking country.

Four suspected killers of the president were fatally shot by National Police in a gun-battle in the affluent district where Mr. Moïse resided, Haiti police chief Leon Charles said Wednesday evening. Two others were captured.

Security forces also freed three police officers who had been held hostage by the alleged killers of the president, Mr. Charles said in a televised address.

Bocchit Edmond, Haiti’s ambassador to the U.S., said that the suspects who were killed and captured were foreigners, and that they had been assisted by Haitian nationals in carrying out the assassination plot.

“They needed Haitian automobiles to get to the president’s house,” the envoy said, adding that the situation was “under control.”

Jean Mary Exil, Haiti’s ambassador to Colombia, said he was awakened by frantic messages from relatives who live in the vicinity of Mr. Moïse’s residence. They heard volleys of heavy gunfire that lasted more than 15 minutes, he said.

Following a cabinet meeting, Mr. Joseph assumed control of the government and declared a state of siege, which restricts freedom of movement, puts the military in charge of security, replaces civilian courts with military tribunals, and restricts media information, Mr. Joseph said in a televised address to the nation.

“I call on the public to remain calm,” Mr. Joseph told Radio Television Caraibes.

Just two months ago, authorities foiled an assassination plot against the president involving dissident police officers, Mr. Exil said. “There are dark forces behind this that don’t want any kind of democratic process,” he said.

Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, has been roiled by lawlessness, political turmoil, gang violence and a contracting economy under Mr. Moïse. The unrest deepened in recent months when the president, who was narrowly elected in 2016 but couldn’t take office for another year because of unrest, refused to leave office in February when opponents argued that his term had ended. He argued that because his term started late, it should also end later. Political foes accused Mr. Moïse of turning into an autocrat.

The 53-year-old president, a former banana plantation manager who called himself “Banana Man,” had ruled by decree for the past two years after his government postponed legislative elections in 2018. He also launched an effort to rewrite the constitution to gain more power. Among other things, the proposed changes would allow him to run for reelection, provide greater control over the military and immunity from prosecution while in office.

“Every sector of society for the past three years including the Catholic church, Protestant ministers, and voodoo priests have tried to talk him out of his autocratic path, but instead he doubled down on it,” said Alice Blanchet, a consultant who has advised five Haitian prime ministers.

Mr. Moïse, who hailed from the countryside and was seen as an outsider, postponed a June referendum on a new constitution amid rising criticism, particularly from the U.S. The referendum was rescheduled for September, when new presidential elections are due to be held.

Mr. Moïse had taken a heavy-handed response to rising protests over a stagnant economy and corruption, using gangs close to him to repress political opponents, according to the U.S. government.

The attack on Wednesday took place at Mr. Moïse’s house in the hills of Port-au-Prince, the capital, which is dotted with slums.

A leading Haitian businessman said that there were a host of possible suspects.

“This is like an Agatha Christie novel,” said the businessman.

President Biden said that he was “shocked and saddened” by the “horrific assassination” of Mr. Moïse. “We stand ready to assist as we continue to work for a safe and secure Haiti,” Mr. Biden said in a statement.

Colombian President Iván Duque called on the Organization of American States, which scheduled an emergency meeting for Wednesday afternoon, to send an urgent mission “to protect the democratic order.” French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said that “all light must be shed on this crime, which has occurred in a political and security climate that is very degraded.”

Mr. Moïse’s assassination means greater instability that will be difficult for the U.S., an hour flight from Port au Prince, to bring under control, said Luis Moreno, a former acting U.S. ambassador in Haiti.

“I’m really concerned that Haiti is going to sink into absolute and total chaos right now,” Mr. Moreno said.

A significant obstacle to exercising democratic power in Haiti is the growing force of gangs, which have often been tied to presidents. When they slip out of control they wreak havoc, said Mr. Moreno.

One of Haiti’s most powerful gang leaders, Jimmy Cherizier, known as “Barbecue,” recorded a video last week in which he called for Mr. Moïse to quit, as gang members, their faces hidden by balaclavas, waved machetes in the air.

Mr. Cherizier, a former policeman, was sanctioned by the U.S. Treasury Department in December for taking part in the 2018 attack on the Port-au-Prince shantytown of La Saline in which at least 71 people were killed and 400 homes were burned. Since then, Mr. Cherizier has become the head of the “G9 Alliance,” a federation of criminal gangs, the U.S. Treasury said. In May of 2020, Mr. Cherizier led gangs in a five-day attack across various Port-au-Prince neighborhoods, killing residents and setting homes on fire, the U.S. Treasury said.

Last Friday, Mr. Cherizier called on gang members to turn their guns on the government because he asserted it hadn’t delivered on promises to alleviate poverty. “Jovenel must go, he has to go,” he said, referring to the president.

The country has had six prime ministers over the past four years. Complicating matters, the late president named a new prime minister, Ariel Henry, on Monday, but he hadn’t yet taken office, leaving Mr. Joseph as acting prime minister. Dr. Henry, a neurosurgeon, has close ties to opposition leaders.

“So far this looks like an execution and not a coup d’état,” said Jean-Max Bellerive, a former Haitian prime minister. “But it could start looking like a coup d’état if the interim prime minister starts taking charge of everything without trying to achieve consensus.”

Mr. Joseph had cleaned out his office this week, said a former Haitian official. “If Henry decides that he is PM, things could get messier,” he said.

Christopher Sabatini, a Latin America expert at Chatham House, a London-based think tank, said: “The lines of succession are already blurred and confused, and the country’s electoral authority—which has yet to appoint a permanent electoral commission—is not prepared to hold new elections.”

Haiti has struggled to recover from a devastating earthquake in 2010, which killed more than 300,000 people and left an estimated 1.5 million homeless. Hurricane Matthew killed 500 people in 2016. The country is now grappling with its first serious Covid-19 outbreak and, as of late June, had yet to administer a single Covid-19 vaccine, according to the Pan-American Health Organization.

Haiti experts say the U.S. has allowed the Caribbean country to drift dangerously in recent years. A United Nations mission deployed in 2005 to ensure stability, with the U.S. providing the essential backing and organization, ended in 2017. While the U.N. mission was there, it had made sure that four presidents had finished their terms safely. Before 2007, five of seven presidents had been overthrown, though none killed.

“We said the U.N. mission should not be withdrawn because Haiti was anything but stabilized,” said James Morrell, executive director of the Haiti Democracy Project, an organization founded by former U.S. ambassadors in 2002. “Of course, we didn’t foresee an assassination.”

The chaos on the ground has to be brought under control and elections have to be organized with the backing of the U.S. and Caricom, an organization of Caribbean countries, said Mr. Moreno, the former acting ambassador. “It can’t really be done without us,” he said.

Some residents blame Mr. Moise for much of the gang violence. These gangs are used by the government to repress dissidents, the U.S. Treasury said in a 2020 order sanctioning two senior Haitian officials for allegedly planning, along with Mr. Cherizier, the 2018 La Saline massacre. The two officials provided police uniforms, guns and vehicles to the gang members who perpetrated the massacre, the U.S. said.

During the La Saline massacre, the gangs took the victims, including children, from their homes and executed them in the street. The bodies were later burned, dismembered and fed to animals, the U.S. Treasury said.

“The climate of insecurity was growing,” said a translator in Port au Prince. “The president’s assassination only showed how bad the situation has been.”

Gangs have battled for control of territory for months, with people snatched off the streets for ransom payments.

“A lot of citizens are getting kidnapped and killed for no reason and without being involved in politics,” the translator said. “We are under stress, scared to go to work and do regular activities.”

Mr. Moïse had grown deeply unpopular in the country, polls show. In addition to lawlessness and economic decline during his tenure, his image was dented by allegations of corruption linked to some $4 billion in oil-based loans from Venezuela under the PetroCaribe oil-for-cash plan.

In 2018, an investigation led by Haiti’s Senate alleged that Mr. Moïse helped embezzle funds linked to PetroCaribe while he was head of banana company Argitrans, before he came to power. It said Argitrans was paid $700,000 to repair roads even though it was a banana company. Mr. Moïse denied wrongdoing.

Haiti was the world’s first independent Black-led republic in 1804 after slaves rebelled against French rule. Since its independence, Haiti has had a turbulent history. The assassination of a Haitian president in 1915, the last Haitian head of state to be killed, led the U.S. to occupy the country until 1934. Later, it was ruled by corrupt and repressive regimes led by François “Papa Doc” Duvalier and his son, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, from 1957 to 1986.

In 1994, the U.S. intervened to reinstate President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Catholic priest who was the first democratically elected president of Haiti in 1991 before he was overthrown by a military coup. After regaining power in 2000 elections, Mr. Aristide, by then no longer a priest, was ousted again by an insurrection in 2004 and forced into exile.

Mr. Edmond, Haiti’s envoy in Washington, said that the assistance of the U.S. government will be crucial in the days to come.

“A stable Haiti is in the interest of the U.S.,” he said.

The troubled Caribbean nation of Haiti was plunged into chaos after its president, Jovenel Moise, was assassinated in a nighttime raid and acting Prime Minister Claude Joseph declared a state of emergency.

Joseph said the president was murdered by highly trained and heavily armed killers who stormed the presidential residence above the capital Port-Au-Prince at around 1 a.m on Wednesday. The first lady Martine Moise was also injured in the attack and Haiti’s ambassador to Washington, Bocchit Edmond, said she was being medically evacuated to South Florida.

Miami’s Local 10 News said the first lady had been taken to Jackson Memorial Hospital in stable but critical condition, with gunshot wounds to her arms and thigh.

The National Police said Wednesday night that four suspects had been fatally shot and two others arrested, according to the Associated Press. Leon Charles, the police chief, said three police officers taken captive by the gunmen had been freed.

The country’s communication secretary, Frantz Exantus, said on Twitter that the “presumed assassins” had been “intercepted” by the National Police. He did not elaborate.

A nation of 11 million and the poorest in the Americas, Haiti has been terrorized for months by gang violence, driving thousands from their homes. President Moise, accused by human rights groups of links to the gangs, was ruling by decree and increasingly seen as an autocrat. Elections were scheduled for September but concerns were growing about whether they would be held.

“It’s highly likely that this was political violence in the prelude to the elections,” said Alan Zamayoa, an analyst at Control Risks who covers Haiti. He said Moise had been challenged by a series of crises -– the unraveling economy, corruption allegations, deteriorating security and his attempts to carry on for another term.

Joseph, the interim prime minister, told the AP he wanted an international investigation. He said the elections should be held as planned and pledged to work with Moise’s allies and opponents alike.

President Joe Biden condemned the assassination as a “heinous act,” echoed by numerous regional and world leaders. He pledged to help work for “a safe and secure Haiti.”

Extortion And Kidnapping

That’s a tall order. Haiti is close to being a failed state in the grip of armed bandits who make a living through extortion and kidnapping. The pandemic has only made things worse with not a single vaccination yet administered. On top of that and a desperately faltering economy, the country is undergoing a constitutional power struggle stemming from a chaotic election which saw Moise only sworn in 15 months after a first-round vote.

Haiti’s security forces need international help to control the country, Ambassador Edmond said. Video of the incident appears to show the attackers speaking English and Spanish, and presenting themselves as agents of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, he said. Since Haitians speak French and Creole, the suggestion is there is foreign involvement.

Port-Au-Prince was mainly quiet during the day.

“There is no one on the street. Everyone is waiting to see what comes next,” said Jean Chevalier-Sanon, director of Haiti’s National Para-Olympic Committee, in a phone interview from the capital in the morning.

Moise, 53, had governed by decree since January 2020, when parliamentary terms expired without elections being held. He’d said his five-year term would run until February 2022, while the opposition said his term ended last February.

Adding to the uncertainty, this week Moise appointed Ariel Henry as prime minister, though he wasn’t sworn in, leaving Claude Joseph acting on an interim basis.

Since a popular uprising ended the 15-year rule of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier in 1986, Haiti has had numerous government changes, with about 20 administrations trying to exercise power. In 2010, it suffered a devastating earthquake that killed some 220,000 and left more than a million homeless. It hasn’t completely rebuilt, with disease and homelessness rampant.
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Haiti’s economy contracted 3.7% last year, a smaller downturn than most other Caribbean nations which suffered a slump in tourism.

At a time of mounting challenges across Latin America – the coronavirus, street demonstrations, food insecurity – Haiti hasn’t been a high priority for Washington or other powers, and there is little to suggest that will change soon.

It shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic and in past years the border has acted like a pressure release valve as Haitians have gone there to work and send money back. Since the pandemic, the border has often been closed, adding to the difficulties.

Haiti’s early history is a source of great national pride. In a brave and remarkable slave rebellion, Haitians threw off French colonial rule, defeating Napoleon Bonaparte’s forces in 1803. The following year, Haiti became the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean and the first to abolish slavery. But it faced ostracism and occupation for decades, and has never known stability or prosperity.

Laurent Lamothe, who was prime minister of Haiti from 2012 to 2014, said by phone that he was shocked at what had happened and the world needed to take notice and step in.

“There needs to be an international investigation,” he said. “Everyone should participate to ensure that those responsible and those that financed it — because these were mercenaries so someone had to pay them — are brought to justice.”

Updated: 7-12-2021

Is Haiti Governable Right Now?

Foreign money has overwhelmed any domestic incentives to play by the rules.

The political chaos that has followed the assassination of Haitian President Jovenel Moise reflects a broader truth: Some nation-states are simply not viable in their current form. Growing incentives for corruption, coupled with unstable internal politics, can tear apart many governments.

Haiti’s troubles are severe. A parliamentary election slated for October 2019 was not held. In the absence of a sitting parliament, political legitimacy is hard to come by and disputes about leadership succession are not easily resolved. The head of the country’s Supreme Court recently died of Covid-19. A takeover by a strongman dictator, even assuming that was an acceptable alternative, is not imminent.

In other words, at the moment there doesn’t seem to be any way to govern Haiti. One problem is that foreign flows of money, whether from the drug trade or from Venezuelan foreign aid, have overwhelmed the domestic incentives to play by the rules. Haiti’s political institutions are mostly consumed by bribes and rents, with no stable center. The news, so to speak, is that such problems do not always have solutions. At all.

It is fine to suggest that Haiti invest in building up its political institutions — but those institutions have been unraveling for decades. I was a frequent visitor to the country in the 1990s, and although the poverty was severe, it was possible to travel with only a modest risk of encountering trouble. Government was largely ineffective, but it did exist.

These days the risk of kidnapping is so high that a visit is unthinkable. In April alone Port-au-Prince reported 91 kidnappings, and probably many more went unreported. By one measure, kidnappings are up 150% compared to 2020. It is another sign that breaking the rules is more profitable than abiding by them.

Fragments of the Haitian government have responded by inviting the U.S. government to send in troops. Whatever you may think of this proposal, it is hard to see it as a solution. The U.S. occupied and ruled Haiti from 1915 to 1934 and failed to fix basic problems.

The U.S. sent in troops in 1994 to restore order, and again failed to spur a Haitian political renaissance. A 13-year United Nations mission to Haiti ended in 2017, and the UN forces ended up extremely unpopular because they helped spread a cholera epidemic.

The buildup and rise of nation-states has become so ordinary that the opposite possibility is now neglected: their enduring collapse. It’s not history running in reverse. It’s that modernity has created new forces and incentives — drug money, kidnapping ransoms, payments from foreign powers, and so on — that can be stronger and more alluring than the usual reasons for supporting an internal national political order.

If the rest of the world gets rich more quickly than you do, it might have the resources to effectively neutralize your incentives for peace and good government.

So where else might the political order soon unravel? In parts of Afghanistan, external forces (Pakistan, China, Russia, the U.S.) have so much at stake that the conditions there may never settle down. Other risks might be found in small, not yet fully orderly nations such as Guyana, Equatorial Guinea, and Eswatini (formerly Swaziland).

El Salvador and Nicaragua seem to be consolidating their political orders, but at the cost of losing fair democratic political competition. The nation-state as we know it might not survive in every part of Nigeria, where the recent surge in kidnappings is striking.

In the Baltics and Taiwan, dangers from larger, aggressive neighbors lurk. In spite of generally good governance in these places, the pressures from outside powers might be too much to bear, reflecting broadly similar destabilizing mechanisms — namely, that the internal rewards for coordinating support for a status quo might not be high enough.

It is unclear what the U.S. should do about Haiti. It has an obligation to try to help, but it’s possible that not much can be done. The stability of the nation-state arose from a particular set of historical and technological circumstances that may or may not continue.

There is a Haitian proverb: “The constitution is paper, bayonets are steel.”

In the early 19th century, when its enslaved people threw off foreign rule and fought a war of liberation, Haiti was a model for a better world. This time around, the world should hope that what is happening in Haiti is not a sign of things to come elsewhere.

Updated: 7-14-2021

Haiti On Brink Of Anarchy Amid Hunger, Gang Violence And Power Vacuum

After president’s murder, Haitians see U.S. calls for elections and restoring democratic order as a pipe dream.

Nearly half of the population on this island nation is facing acute hunger, while gang members block fuel distribution routes to the capital and scare away tourists from pristine beaches. In contrast to neighboring countries, Haiti has yet to administer a single vaccine against Covid-19.

A country that for much of its history has been stifled by poverty and strife is now mired in its worst crisis in a generation after President Jovenel Moïse was assassinated in his home last week in a murky attack the police blame on two dozen foreign mercenaries and a 63-year-old doctor they say wanted to be president.

Though Claude Joseph, the interim prime minister, says he is Haiti’s rightful leader, the Biden administration on Monday appeared to distance itself from him after a U.S. delegation traveled to the island over the weekend.

Officials from Homeland Security, the State Department and the National Security Council saw him and two other men with claims on power: Ariel Henry, whom Mr. Moïse had named as prime minister but who hadn’t taken office, and Senate President Joseph Lambert, the NSC said Monday.

“What was clear from their trip is that there is a lack of clarity about the future of political leadership,” White House press secretary Jen Psaki told reporters. She said the administration remains in contact with “a range of leaders in Haiti about how we can assist.”

The U.S. shied from signaling support for one leader over the other. Last week, State Department spokesman Ned Price said the U.S. had been working with Mr. Joseph, referring to him as “the incumbent in the position.”

The visit by the Americans may be a prelude to an agreement between Mr. Joseph and Mr. Henry to work together to stabilize the country and pave the way for fresh elections, Mr. Henry told The Wall Street Journal on Monday, describing talks he has held with Mr. Joseph.

The U.S. has reiterated that American troops wouldn’t be deployed in Haiti, as they were in 1994 to return a deposed president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, to power. And U.S. officials have told Haitians that preserving democratic institutions and holding elections are key to restoring peace here.

But talk of an election seems like a pipe dream to many people in a nation that is teetering on collapse. The late Mr. Moïse had been ruling by decree for two years, and the country has no functioning parliament. The president of the Supreme Court died of Covid-19 last month.

Further complicating matters, electoral authorities were appointed unconstitutionally last year, said Pierre Espérance, a prominent human rights lawyer here.

Mr. Espérance, who in the past has worked closely with U.S. lawmakers, said American officials “push, they push, they push, a lot for an election this year. But we cannot have an election in this situation. There is no constitutional solution.”

He said the U.S. and its allies need to broker dialogue between Haiti’s civil society groups and its fragmented political parties to calm tensions and restore order. Nearly 70 people ran for president in 2015 elections. A runoff was delayed multiple times; and in 2016, Mr. Moïse won out of a pool of nearly 30 candidates.

A succession battle that has ensued with Mr. Moïse’s death promises to make the job of identifying leaders in Haiti’s politically fragmented establishment more challenging than usual. Even political nobodies are seemingly willing to fill the power vacuum.

The political uncertainty comes as police on Sunday said they arrested Christian Emmanuel Sanon, a Haitian doctor, for being a central figure in the assassination of Mr. Moïse. Authorities alleged that Mr. Sanon, who until June was living in Florida, wanted to take over as president. But many here didn’t even know him.

“I have no idea who this guy is,” said Andre Michel, the leader of a coalition of opposition political parties as he explained Haiti’s leadership crisis.

He accused the ruling government of working with gang leaders and corrupt businessmen, and said Mr. Moïse’s decrees had eroded the little that was left of Haiti’s democracy. Mr. Joseph’s government couldn’t be reached to comment on the allegations.

Mr. Michel said he feared the worst for his country without assistance from the U.S. and the United Nations, to both keep the peace on the ground and to encourage political leaders to work together.

“We’re talking about completely rebuilding a state,” Mr. Michel said at the offices of his political party Monday.

Without electricity, he was sweating and fanning himself with a manila folder at his desk as he shouted at assistants to fix a power generator.

Bringing politicians together to debate would only be an initial step in a long list of tasks needed to bring the streets under control. In recent months, rampant violence, including the burning of homes by ruthless crime syndicates, has forced thousands of Haitians to flee crowded slums in the south of Port-au-Prince, a mass displacement that the U.N. has described as a mounting humanitarian disaster.

For many Haitians, elections and even the prospect of stability in their country sound like fantasy as gang battles, the political breakdown and unemployment turn daily life into a nightmare.

Witney Sejour, a 25-year-old saleswoman here, said seeing dead bodies lying on the road on her way home from work has turned into an almost daily occurrence.

“I try to keep my head down and carry on my way,” Ms. Sejour said, describing the toll it has taken on her mental health.

“But when I lay down in bed at night I cry,” she said. “This whole country needs a psychological evaluation. I’m not asking to be rich. I just want stability.”

Others are improvising to get by. Nickenson Amos, a 30-year-old struggling to support his two small children, said he uses the little money he has to buy gasoline whenever it is available.

With gangs leaving major fuel truck routes in the south of the capital impassable, Mr. Amos spends his days standing outside of the city’s closed gas stations with a jug for fuel, waiting for them to open. Once they do, he buys gasoline and resells it to desperate motorists at five times the usual price.

His net earnings are still paltry. With crime out of control, he said few customers even venture out these days.

“It’s a horrible situation,” Mr. Amos said, adding that he hoped for a military incursion from abroad to restore order. “If they don’t come, we’re going to need a miracle.”

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